PostgreSQL security best practices can help you secure PostgreSQL database against security vulnerabilities. This is also known as PostgreSQL hardening. You can also use these best practices as a security checklist for PostgreSQL.
PostgreSQL Security Best Practices
Here are the top PostgreSQL Security Best Practices you can adopt to secure your PostgreSQL database.
1. Use Non-Trust Authentication
By default, PostgreSQL uses Trust Authentication that assumes that anyone who has access to server can connect to database by simply specifying database username.
It is important to edit your pg_hba.conf file and switch to a non-trust authentication method like MD5.
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2. Disable Remote Access
Update pg_hba.conf file to disable remote access to your database. If you need to access PostgreSQL database remotely, use SSH to log into the server that hosts your database and use a local database connection from there on. You can also securely connect to your PostrgeSQL database using SSH tunneling.
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3. Use single-way encryption
Some values in your database such as passwords, do not need decryption. For such values, use hash-based encryption such as MD5, which cannot be decrypted, instead of using algorithms like AES, which are two-way. This will add an extra security layer.
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4. Limit Port Level Access
Review all ports that have network access to your database and revoke access to unnecessary ports.
5. Enable SSL connection
By default, PostgreSQL transmits connection details, queries and result data as plain-text, which is vulnerable to network spoofing. SSL connection protocol allows browsers to connect to server securely, and ensures that data remains encrypted. So enable SSL connections in PostgreSQL, so that all connections, queries and data and securely transmitted over network.
6. Enable Montitoring
Install pg_stat_statements extension to enable automated query monitoring for your PostgreSQL database. This extension monitors and logs all types of queries such as SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE, INSERT and creates an audit trail to identify culprits.
7. Enable Logging
Similarly, PostgreSQL supports a wide range of fine-grain logging features during runtime. Here is the exhaustive list of runtime logging options. You can use it to log connections, disconnections, log running queries, temp file size and more. It even allows you to specify what to log, when to log and where to log.
8. Stay up-to-date
PostgreSQL regularly releases critical updates and security patches that not only improve database performance but also improves database security. So please update your database regularly to ensure that it stays protected against latest vulnerabilities.
Hopefully, the above PostgreSQL Security Best Practices will help you secure your database against vulnerabilities.